Enigk DK, M Emery Thompson, ZP Machanda, RW Wrangham & MN Muller. Competitive ability determines coalition participation and partner selection during maturation in wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 74: 89.

Muller MN, NG Blurton Jones, F Colchero, M Emery Thompson, DK Enigk, JT Feldblum, BH Hahn, KE Langergraber, EJ Scully, L Vigilant, KK Walker, RW Wrangham, EE   Wroblewski & AE Pusey. Sexual dimorphism in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthiiand human age-specific fertility. Journal of Human Evolution. 144: 102795.

Emery Thompson M, SA Fox, A Berghänel, K Sabbi, S Phillips-Garcia, D Enigk, E Otali, ZP Machanda, RW Wrangham & MN Muller. Aging of the glucocorticoid stress response in wild chimpanzees. PNAS. 117: 8424-8430.

Sabbi KH, MN Muller, SA Fox, ZP Machanda, E Otali, RW Wrangham & M Emery Thompson. Human-like adrenal development in wild chimpanzees: A longitudinal study of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate. American Journal of Primatology.


Negrey, JD, RB Reddy, EJ Scully, S Phillips-Garcia, L Owens, KE Langergraber, J Mitani, M Emery Thompson, RW Wrangham, MN Muller, E Otali, ZP Machanda, D Hyeroba, KA Grindle, TE Pappas, AC Palmenberg, JE Gern & TL Goldberg. 2019. Simultaneous outbreaks of respiratory disease in wild chimpanzees caused by distinct viruses of human origin. Emerging Microbes and Infections 8: 139-149.

Surbeck M, C Boesch, M Emery Thompson, T Furuichi, B Fruth, G Hohmann, S Ishizuka, Z Machanda, MN Muller, A Pusey, T Sakamaki, N Tokuyama, K Walker, R Wrangham, E Wroblewski, K Zuberbühler, L Vigilant & K Langergraber. 2019. Males with a mother living in their community have higher reproductive success in bonobos but not chimpanzees. Current Biology 29: R341–R357.

Uwimbabazi M, JM Rothman, GI Basuta, ZP Machanda, NL Conklin-Brittain & RW Wrangham. 2019. Influence of fruit availability on macronutrient and energy intake by female chimpanzees. African Journal of Ecology 58. doi: 10.1111/aje.12636.


Bray J, M Emery Thompson, MN Muller, RW Wrangham & ZP Machanda. 2018. The development of feeding behavior in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 165: 34-46. pdf

Emery Thompson M, ZP Machanda, EJ Scully, DK Enigk, E Otali, MN Muller, TL Goldberg, CA Chapman & RW Wrangham. 2018. Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Royal Society Open Science 5: 180840.

Scully EJ, S Basnet, RW Wrangham, MN Muller, E Otali, D Hyeroba, KA Grindle, TE Pappas, M Emery Thompson, Z Machanda, KE Watters, AC Palmenberg, JE Gern & TL Goldberg. 2018. Lethal respiratory epidemic in wild chimpanzees associated with human rhinovirus C. Emerging Infectious Diseases 24: 267-274. pdf


Gilby IC, ZP Machanda, RC O’Malley, CM Murray, EV Lonsdorf, K Walker, DC Mjungu, E Otali, MN Muller, M Emery Thompson, AE Pusey & RW Wrangham. 2017. Predation by female chimpanzees: toward an understanding of sex differences in meat acquisition in the last common ancestor of Pan and HomoJournal of Human Evolution 110: 82-94. pdf

Muller MN, RW Wrangham & DR Pilbeam (Editors). 2017. Chimpanzees and Human Evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. link

Muller MN. 2017. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates. Hormones and Behavior 91: 36-51. pdf

Nelson SV & MI Hamilton. 2017. Evolution of the human dietary niche – initial transitions. In: Muller MN, RW Wrangham & DR Pilbeam (Eds.) Chimpanzees and Human Evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 286-310.

Phillips CA, RW Wrangham & WC McGrew. 2017. Non-dietary analytical features of chimpanzee scats. Primates 58: 393-402.

Weary TE, RW Wrangham & M Clauss. 2017. Applying wet sieving fecal particle size measurement to frugivores: A case study of the Eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 163: 510-518.

Wilke C, E Kavanagh, E Donnellan, BM Waller, ZP Machanda & KE. Slocombe. 2017. Production of and responses to unimodal and multimodal signals in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthiiAnimal Behaviour 123: 305-316.

Wrangham RW, S Worthington, AB Bernard, K Koops, ZP Machanda, MN Muller. 2017. Response to: Chimpanzee culture extends beyond matrilineal family units. Current Biology 27: R590-R591. pdf


Dominy NJ, JD Yeakel, U Bhat, L Ramsden, RW Wrangham & PW Lucas. 2016. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs. Interface Focus 6: 20160001.

Emery Thompson M, MN Muller, K Sabbi, ZP Machanda, E Otali & RW Wrangham. 2016. Faster reproductive rates trade off against offspring growth in wild chimpanzees. PNAS 113: 7780-7785. Get pdf

Fedurek P, KE Slocombe, DK Enigk, M Emery Thompson, RW Wrangham & MN Muller. 2016. The relationship between testosterone and long-distance calling in wild male chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 70: 659-672. Get pdf

Janmaat KRL, C Boesch, CA Chapman, ZB Goné Bi, JS Head, MM Robbins, et al. 2016. The spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How large-brained primates can counteract the ephemeral nature of their food. American Journal of Primatology 78: 626-645.

Loudon J, PA Sandberg, RW Wrangham, B Fahey & M Sponheimer. 2016. The stable isotope ecology of Pan and comments on fossil hominoids. American Journal of Primatology 781070-1085.

Wrangham RW, K Koops, ZP Machanda, S Worthington, AB Bernard, NF Brazeau, R Donovan, J Rosen, C Wilke, E Otali & MN Muller. 2016. Distribution of a chimpanzee social custom is explained by matrilineal relationship rather than conformity. Current Biology 22: 3033-3037. Get pdf


Gilby IC, ZP Machanda, DC Mjungu, J Rosen, MN Muller, AE Pusey & RW Wrangham. 2015. ‘Impact hunters’ catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 370: 20150005. Get pdf

Hockings, KJ, MR McLennan, S Carvalho, M Ancrenaz, R Bobe, RW Byrne, et al. 2015. Apes in the Anthropocene: Flexibility and survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 215-222.

Machanda Z, NF Brazeau, AB Bernard, RM Donovan, AM Papakyrikos, RW Wrangham & TM Smith. 2015. Dental eruption in east African wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 82: 137–144. Get pdf

Potts K, E Baken, S Ortmann, DP Watts & RW Wrangham. 2015. Variability in population density is paralleled by large differences in foraging efficiency in chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 36: 1101-1119.

Rushmore J, AB Allison, EE Edwards, U Bagal, S Altizer, MR Cranfield, TC Glenn, H Liu, A Mudakikwa, L Mugisha, MN Muller, RM Stumpf, ME Thompson, RW Wrangham & MJ Yabsley. 2015. Screening great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: evidence of Trichomonadidae infections in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 77: 1075-1085. Get pdf

Sistiaga A, RW Wrangham, JM Rothman, & RE Summons. 2015. New insights into the evolution of the human diet from faecal biomarker analysis in wild chimpanzee and gorilla faeces. PLoS ONE 10(6), e0128931.


Emery Thompson M, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2014. Male chimpanzees compromise the foraging success of their mates in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68: 1973-1983. Get pdf

Fedurek P, E Donnellan & KE Slocombe. 2014. Social and ecological correlates of long-distance pant hoot calls in male chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68: 1345-1355. Get pdf

Georgiev AV, AF Russell, M Emery Thompson, E Otali, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2014. The foraging costs of mating effort in male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). International Journal of Primatology 35: 725-745.  Get pdf

Houle A, NL Conklin-Brittain & RW Wrangham. 2014. Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: Macronutrients and condensed tannins. American Journal of Primatology 76: 1207-1232. Get pdf

Langergraber KE, C Rowney, G Schubert, C Crockford, C Hobaiter, R Wittig, et al. 2014. How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies. Journal of Human Evolution 69: 1-7.

Machanda ZP, IC Gilby & RW Wrangham. 2014. Mutual grooming among adult male chimpanzees: the immediate investment hypothesis. Animal Behaviour 87: 165-174. Get pdf

Muller MN & RW Wrangham. 2014. Mortality rates among Kanyawara chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 66: 107-114. Get pdf

Rushmore J, D Caillaud, RJ Hall, RM Stumpf, LA Meyers & S Altizer. 2014. Network-based vaccination improves prospects for disease control in wild chimpanzees. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11: 20140349. Get pdf

Wilson ML, C Boesch, B Fruth, T Furuichi, IC Gilby, C Hashimoto, CL Hobaiter, G Hohmann, N Itoh, K Koops, JN Lloyd, T Matsuzawa, JC Mitani, DC Mjungu, D Morgan, MN Muller, R Mundry, M Nakamura, J Pruetz, AE Pusey, J Riedel, C Sanz, AM Schel, N Simmons, M Waller, DP Watts, F White, RM Wittig, K Zuberbühler & RW Wrangham. 2014. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature 513: 414-417. Get pdf


Emery Thompson M. 2013. Reproductive ecology of wild chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 75: 222-237. Get pdf

Fedurek P, AM Schel & KE Slocombe. 2013. The acoustic structure of chimpanzee pant-hooting facilitates chorusing. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 1781-1789. Get pdf

Fedurek P & KE Slocombe. 2013. The social function of food-associated calls in male chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 75: 726-739. Get pdf

Fedurek P, Z Machanda, AM Schel & KE Slocombe. 2013. Pant hoot chorusing and social bonds in male chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 86: 189-196. Get pdf

Hamer SA, AB Bernard, RM Donovan, JA Hartel, RW Wrangham, E Otali, et al. 2013. Coincident tick infestations in the nostrils of wild chimpanzees and a human in Uganda. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89: 924-927.

Machanda ZP, IC Gilby & RW Wrangham. 2013. Male–female association patterns among free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). International Journal of Primatology 34: 917-938. Get pdf

Nelson SV. 2013. Chimpanzee fauna isotopes provide new interpretations of fossil ape and hominin ecologies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280: 20132324. Get pdf

Rushmore J, D Caillaud, L Matamba, RM Stumpf, SP Borgatti & S Altizer. 2013. Social network analysis of wild chimpanzees with insights for disease transmission. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 976-986. Get pdf

Smith TM, Z Machanda, AB Bernard, RM Donovan, AM Papakyrikos, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2013. First molar eruption, weaning, and life history in living wild chimpanzees. PNAS 110: 2787-2791. Get pdf


Emery Thompson M, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2012. Variation in muscle mass in wild chimpanzee: application of a modified creatinine method. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149: 622-627. Get pdf

Emery Thompson M, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2012. The energetics of lactation and the return to fecundity in wild female chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology 23: 1234-1241. Get pdf

Langergraber KE, K Prüfer, C Rowney, C Boesch, C Crockford, K Fawcett, E Inoue, M Inoue-Muruyama, J Mitani, MN Muller, MM Robbins, G Schubert, T Stoinski, D Watts, RM Wittig, RW Wrangham, K Zuberbühler, S Pääbo & L Vigilant. 2012. Direct observation of generation times in wild apes suggests old divergences in hominid evolution. PNAS 109: 15716-15721.

Li Y, J-B Ndjango, GH Learn, M Ramirez, BF Keele, F Bibollet-Ruche, W Liu, JL Easlick, JM Decker, RS Rudicell, B-I Inogwabini, S Ahuka-Mundeke, FH Leendertz, V Reynolds, MN Muller, RL Chancellor, AS Rundus, N Simmons, M Worobey, GM Shaw, M Peeters, PM Sharp & BH Hahn. 2012. Eastern chimpanzees, but not bonobos, represent a simian immunodeficiency virus reservoir. Journal of Virology 86: 10776-10791.

Wilson ML, SM Kahlenberg, M Wells & RW Wrangham. 2012. Ecological and social factors affect the occurrence and outcomes of intergroup encounters in chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 83: 277-291. Get pdf


Gruber T, MN Muller, V Reynolds, RW Wrangham & K Zuberbühler. 2011. Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees. Scientific Reports 1, 128; DOI:10.1038/srep00128.  Get pdf

Hyeroba D, P Apell & E Otali. 2011. Managing a speared alpha male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Veterinary Record 169: 658. Get pdf

Langergraber KE, G Schubert, C Rowney, RW Wrangham, Z Zommers & L Vigilant. 2011. Genetic differentiation and the evolution of cooperation in chimpanzees and humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 2546-2552.

Muller MN, M Emery Thompson, S Kahlenberg & RW Wrangham. 2011. Sexual coercion by male chimpanzees shows that female choice may be more apparent than real. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 921-933.  Get pdf

Potts K, DP Watts & RW Wrangham. 2011. Comparative feeding ecology of two chimpanzee communities in Kibale National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 34: 669-690. Get pdf


Gilby IC, A Pokempner & RW Wrangham. 2010. A direct comparison of scan and focal sampling methods for measuring wild chimpanzee feeding behaviour. Folia Primatologica 81: 254-264. Get pdf

Kahlenberg SM & RW Wrangham. 2010. Sex differences in chimpanzees’ use of sticks as play objects resemble those of children. Current Biology 20: R1067-R1068. Get pdf

Carlson KJ, RW Wrangham, MN Muller, DR Sumner, ME Morbeck, T Nishida, A Yamanaka & C Boesch. 2010. Comparisons of limb structural properties in free-ranging chimpanzees from Kibale, Gombe, Mahale and Tai communities. In: D’Aout K & EE Vereecke (Eds.), Primate Locomotion: Linking Field and Laboratory Research. New York: Springer.

Emery Thompson M, MN Muller, S Kahlenberg & RW Wrangham. 2010. Dynamics of social and ecological stress in wild female chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior 58: 440-449. Get pdf

Gilby IC, M Emery Thompson, J Ruane & RW Wrangham. 2010. No evidence of short-term exchange of meat for sex among chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 59:44-53. Get pdf

Gilby IC & RC Connor. 2010. The role of intelligence in group hunting: Are chimpanzees different from other social predators? In: EV Lonsdorf, SR Ross, T Matsuzawa (Eds.), The Mind of the Chimpanzee: Ecological and Experimental Perspectives. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. pp. 220-233.

Langergraber KE, C Boesch, E Inoue, M Inoue-Murayama, JC Mitani, T Nishida, A Pusey, V Reynolds, G Schubert, RW Wrangha, E Wroblewski & L Vigilant. 2010. Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 278: 408-416. Get pdf

Linlin L, A Kapoor, B Slikas, OS Bamidele, C Wang, S Shaukat, MA Masroor, ML Wilson, J-BN Ndjango, M Peeters, ND Gross-Camp, MN Muller, BH Hahn, ND Wolfe, H Triki, J Bartkus, SZ Zaidi & E Delwart. 2010. Multiple diverse circoviruses infect farm animals and are commonly found in human and chimpanzee feces. Journal of Virology 84: 1674-1682. Get pdf

Wrangham R. 2010. Foreword, In: Olupot W & AJ Plumptre (Eds.) Conservation Research in Uganda’s Forests. New York, Nova Science Publishers.


Emery Thompson M, MN Muller, RW Wrangham, JS Lwanga & K Potts. 2009. Urinary C-peptide tracks seasonal and individual variation in energy balance in wild chimpanzees. Hormones and Behavior 55: 299-305. Get pdf

Gruber T, MN Muller, P Strimling, RW Wrangham, & K Zuberbuhler. 2009. Wild chimpanzees rely on cultural knowledge to solve an experimental honey acquisition task. Current Biology 19: 1806-1810. Get pdf

Muller MN, SM Kahlenberg & RW Wrangham. 2009. Male aggression against females and sexual coercion in chimpanzees. In: MN Muller and RW Wrangham (Eds.), Sexual Coercion in Primates: An Evolutionary Perspective on Male Aggression Against Females. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Stumpf RM, M Emery Thompson, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2009. The context of female dispersal in Kanyawara chimpanzees. Behaviour 146: 629-656. Get pdf


Carter ML, H Pontzer & RW Wrangham. 2008. Skeletal pathology in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135: 389-403. Get pdf

Emery Thompson M & RW Wrangham. 2008. Diet and  reproductive function in wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Physical  Anthropology 135: 171-181. Get pdf

Emery Thompson M & RW Wrangham. 2008. Male mating interest varies with female fecundity in chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 29: 885-905. Get pdf

Gilby IC & RW Wrangham. 2008. Association patterns among wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) reflect sex differences in cooperation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62: 1831-1842. Get pdf

Gilby IC, LE Eberly & RW Wrangham. 2008. Economic  profitability of social predation among wild chimpanzees: individual variation  promotes cooperation. Animal Behaviour 75: 351-360. Get pdf

Kahlenberg SM, M Emery Thompson & RW Wrangham.  2008. Female competition over core areas among Kanyawara chimpanzees, Kibale National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 29: 931-947. Get pdf

Kahlenberg SM, M Emery Thompson, MN Muller & RW Wrangham. 2008. Immigration costs for female chimpanzees and male protection as an immigrant counterstrategy to intrasexual aggression. Animal Behaviour  76: 1497-1509. Get pdf

Kasenene JM & E Ross. 2008. Community benefits from long-term research programs: a case study from Kibale National Park. In: RW Wrangham, E Ross (Eds.), Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Longterm Research. Cambridge University Press, pp. 99-115.

Lwanga JS & G Isabirye-Basuta. 2008. Long-term perspectives on forest conservation: lessons from research in Kibale National Park. In: RW Wrangham, E Ross (Eds.), Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Longterm Research. Cambridge University Press, pp. 63-74.

Pieta K. 2008. Female mate preferences among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of Kanyawara, Kibale National Park. International Journal of Primatology 29: 845-864. Get pdf

Wrangham RW & E Ross (Eds.) 2008. Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Longterm Research. Cambridge University Press, 280 pp.

Wrangham RW. 2008. Why the link between long-term research and conservation is a case worth making. In: RW Wrangham, E Ross (Eds.), Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Longterm Research. Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-8.

Wrangham RW. 2008. Long-term research and conservation: the way forward. In: RW Wrangham, E Ross (Eds.), Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Longterm Research. Cambridge University Press, pp. 242-245.


Duffy KG, RW Wrangham & JB Silk. 2007. Male chimpanzees exchange political support for mating opportunities. Current Biology 17: 586-587. Get pdf

Emery Thompson M, SM Kahlenberg, IC Gilby & RW Wrangham. 2007. Core area quality is associated with variance in reproductive  success in chimpanzees at Kanyawara, Kibale National Park. Animal Behaviour 73: 501-512. Get pdf

Emery Thompson M, JH Jones, AE Pusey, S Brewer-Marsden, J Goodall, D Marsden, T Matsuzawa, T Nishida, V Reynolds, Y Sugiyama & RW Wrangham.  2007. Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause. Current Biology 17: 2150-2156. Get pdf

Gilby IC & RW Wrangham. 2007. Risk-prone hunting by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) increases during periods of high diet quality. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61: 1771-1779. Get pdf

Houle A, CA Chapman & WL Vickery. 2007. Intratree variation in fruit production and implications for primate foraging. International Journal of Primatology 28: 1197-1217. Get pdf

Langergraber KE, H Siedel, JC Mitani, RW Wrangham, V Reynolds, K Hunt & L Vigilant. 2007. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans. PLoS ONE 2: e973. Get pdf

Muller MN, SM Kahlenberg, M Emery Thompson & RW Wrangham. 2007. Male coercion and the costs of promiscuous mating for female chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274: 1009-1014. Get pdf

Riede T, AC Arcadi & MJ Owren. 2007. Nonlinear acoustics in the pant hoots of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Vocalizing at the edge. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121: 1758-1767. Get pdf

Wilson ML, MD Hauser & RW Wrangham. 2007. Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes modify grouping and vocal behaviour in response to location-specific risk. Behaviour 144: 1621-1653. Get pdf

Wrangham RW, MC Crofoot, R Lundy & IC Gilby. 2007. Use of overlap zones in group-living primates: a test of the risk hypothesis. Behaviour 144: 1599-1619. Get pdf


Conklin-Brittain NL, CD Knott & RW Wrangham. 2006. Energy intake by wild chimpanzees and orangutans: methodological considerations  and a preliminary comparison. In: G Hohmann, MM Robbins, C Boesch (Eds.), Feeding Ecology in Apes and Other Primates.  Cambridge: Cambridge University  Press, pp. 445-471.

Emery Thompson M & RW Wrangham. 2006. Comparison of sex  differences in gregariousness in fission-fusion species: reducing bias by standardizing for party size. In: Newton-Fisher NE, H Notman, V Reynolds, and J  Paterson (Eds.) Primates of Western Uganda. New York, Springer, pp.209-226. Get pdf

Emery Thompson M, RW Wrangham & V Reynolds. 2006. Urinary  estrone conjugates and reproductive parameters in Kibale (Kanyawara) and Budongo (Sonso) chimpanzees. In: Newton-Fisher NE, H Notman, V Reynolds, and J  Paterson (Eds.) Primates of Western Uganda. New York, Springer, pp. 227-246. Get pdf

Krief S, RW Wrangham & D Lestel. 2006. Diversity of  items of low nutritional value ingested by chimpanzees from Kanyawara, Kibale National Park, Uganda: an example of the etho-ethnology of chimpanzees. Social Science Information 45: 227-263. Get pdf

Krief S, MA Huffman, T Sevenet, CM Hladik, P Grellier, PM  Loiseau & RW Wrangham. 2006. Bioactive properties of plant species ingested by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 68: 51-71. Get pdf

Muller MN, M Emery Thompson & RW Wrangham. 2006. Male  chimpanzees prefer mating with old females. Current Biology 16: 2234-2238. Get pdf

Otali E & JS Gilchrist. 2006. Why chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) mothers are less gregarious than nonmothers and males: The infant safety hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59: 561-570. Get pdf

Pontzer H & RW Wrangham. 2006. Ontogeny of ranging in wild chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 27: 295-309. Get pdf

Watts DP, M Muller, SJ Amsler, G Mbabazi & JC Mitani. 2006. Lethal intergroup aggression by chimpanzees in Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 68: 161-180. Get pdf

Wrangham RW, ML Wilson & MN Muller. 2006. Comparative  rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans. Primates 47: 14-26. Get pdf


Emery Thompson M. 2005. Reproductive endocrinology of wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Methodological considerations and the role of hormones in  sex and conception. American Journal of  Primatology 67: 137-158. Get pdf

Krief S, MA Huffman, T Sevenet, J Guillot, C Bories, CM  Hladik & RW Wrangham. 2005. Noninvasive monitoring of the health of Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the  Kibale National Park, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 26: 467-490. Get pdf

Krief S, O Thoison, T Sevenet, RW Wrangham & C Lavaud. 2005. Triterpenoid saponin anthranilates from Albizia grandibracteata leaves ingested by primates in Uganda. Journal of Natural Products 68: 897-903. Get pdf

Mahaney WC, MW Milner, S Aufreiter, RGV Hancock, RW  Wrangham & S Campbell. 2005. Soils consumed by chimpanzees of the Kanyawara community in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology 26: 1375-1398. Get pdf

Muller MN & RW Wrangham. 2005. Testosterone and energetics in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). American Journal of Primatology 66: 119-130. Get pdf

Muller MN & JC Mitani. 2005. Conflict and cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Advances in the Study of Behavior 35: 275-331. Get pdf


Arcadi AC, D Robert & F Mugurusi. 2004. A comparison of buttress drumming by male chimpanzees from two populations. Primates 45: 135-139. Get pdf

Kelly TR, JM Sleeman & RW Wrangham. 2004. Urinalysis in free-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes  schweinfurthii) in Uganda. Veterinary Record 154: 729-730.

Lambert JE, CA Chapman, RW Wrangham & NL Conklin-Brittain. 2004. Hardness of cercopithecine foods: Implications for the critical function of enamel thickness in exploiting fallback foods. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 125: 363-368.

Muller MN & RW Wrangham. 2004. Dominance, cortisol and stress in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes  schweinfurthii). Behavioral Ecology  and Sociobiology 55: 332-340. Get pdf

Muller MN & RW Wrangham. 2004. Testosterone, dominance and aggression in wild chimpanzees: a test of the challenge hypothesis. Animal Behaviour 67: 113-123. Get pdf

Pontzer H & RW Wrangham. 2004. Climbing and the daily  energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid  locomotor evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 46: 315-333. Get pdf

Riede T, MJ Owren & AC Arcadi. 2004. Nonlinear acoustics in pant hoots of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): frequency jumps, subharmonics, biphonation, and deterministic chaos. American Journal of Primatology 64: 277-291. Get pdf

Wrangham RW & ML Wilson. 2004. Collective violence: comparisons between youths and chimpanzees. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1036: 233-256. Get pdf


Llorente M, J Sabater Pi & A Houle. 2003. Association between Galago thomasi and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Folia Primatologica 74: 80-84. Get pdf

Muller MN & SF Lipson. 2003. Diurnal patterns of urinary steroid excretion in wild chimpanzees. American  Journal of Primatology 60: 161-166. Get pdf

Santiago ML, M Lukasik, S Kamenya, Y Li, F Bibollet-Ruche, E Bailes, et al. 2003. Foci of endemic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Journal of Virology 77: 7545-7562.

Wilson ML & RW Wrangham. 2003. Intergroup relations in chimpanzees. Annual Review of  Anthropology 32: 363-392. Get pdf


Conklin-Brittain NL, RW Wrangham & CC Smith. 2002. A  two-stage model of increased dietary quality in early hominid evolution: the role of fiber. In: Ungar P & M Teaford (Eds.) Human Diet: Its Origin and Evolution. Westport, CT:  Bergin & Garvey, pp. 61-76.

Muller MN. 2002. Agonistic relations among Kanyawara chimpanzees. In: C Boesch, G Hohmann, and L Marchant (Eds.), Behavioral Diversity in Chimpanzees and  Bonobos. Cambridge: Cambridge University  Press, pp. 112-124.

Santiago ML, CM Rodenburg, S Kamenya, F Bibollet-Ruche, F  Gao, S Meleth, JM Kilby, Z Maldoveanu, B Fahey, MN Muller, A Ayouba, E  Nerrienet, HM McClure, JL Heeney, AE Pusey, DA Collins, C Boesch, RW Wrangham,  J Goodall, PM Sharp, GM Shaw & BH Hahn. 2002. SIVcpz in wild  chimpanzees. Science 295: 465. Get pdf

Vartanian J-P, P Pineau, H Michel, WD Hamilton, MN Muller, RW Wrangham & S Wain-Hobson. 2002. Identification of a hepatitis B virus genome in wild chimpanzees (Pan  troglodytes schweinfurthii) from East Africa  indicates a wide geographical dispersion among equatorial African primates. Journal of Virology 76: 11155-11158. Get pdf

Wilson ML, NF Britton & NR Franks. 2002. Chimpanzees and the mathematics of battle. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269: 1107-1112. Get pdf

Wrangham RW. 2002. The cost of sexual attraction: Is there a trade-off in female Pan between sex appeal and received coercion? In: C Boesch, G Hohmann, and L Marchant (Eds.) Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and  Bonobos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 204-215.


Conklin-Brittain NL, CD Knott & RW Wrangham. 2001. The feeding  ecology of apes. In: The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century (Conference proceedings, May 10-13, 2000, Brookfield, IL), Chicago:  Chicago Zoological Society, pp. 167-174.

Hill K, C Boesch, J Goodall, A Pusey, J Williams & RW Wrangham. 2001. Mortality rates among wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 40: 437-450. Get pdf

Muller MN & RW Wrangham. 2001. The reproductive ecology  of male hominoids. In: P. Ellison (Ed.), Reproductive  Ecology. New York: Aldine, pp. 397-427.

Nishida T, RW Wrangham, JH Jones, A Marshall & J Wakibara. 2001. Do chimpanzees survive the 21st century? In: Brookfield Zoo (Ed.) The Apes: Challenges for the 21st Century. Brookfield, IL, Chicago Zoological Society, pp. 43-51.

Whiten A, J Goodall, WC McGrew, T Nishida, Y Sugiyama, CEG Tutin, RW Wrangham & C Boesch. 2001. Charting cultural variation in chimpanzees. Behaviour 138: 1481-1516. Get pdf

Wilson ML, MD Hauser & RW Wrangham. 2001. Does  participation in intergroup conflict depend on numerical assessment, range  location, or rank for wild chimpanzees? Animal Behaviour 61: 1203-1216. Get pdf


Arcadi AC. 2000. Vocal responsiveness in male wild chimpanzees: implications for the evolution of language. Journal of Human Evolution 39: 205-223. Get pdf

Ashford RW, GD Reid & RW Wrangham. 2000. Intestinal parasites of the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 94: 173-179.

Balcomb S, CA Chapman & RW Wrangham. 2000. The  relationship between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density and large, fleshy-fruit tree density: conservation  implications. American Journal of  Primatology 51: 197-203. Get pdf

Muller MN. 2000. The knuckle-walking wounded: chimpanzees in Uganda maimed by poacher traps. Natural History, October, pp. 44-46.

Tappen M & RW Wrangham. 2000. Recognizing  hominid-modified bones: The taphonomy of colobus bones partially digested by free-ranging chimpanzees in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 113: 217-234. Get pdf

Wrangham RW. 2000. Why are male chimpanzees more gregarious than mothers? A scramble competition hypothesis. In: P Kappeler (Ed.), Male Primates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.  248-258.

Wrangham, RW & S Mugume. 2000. Snare removal program in Kibale National Park: a preliminary report. Pan Africa News 718-20.

Wrangham RW, M Wilson, B Hare & ND Wolfe. 2000. Chimpanzee predation and the ecology of pathogen exchange. Microbial Ecology in Health and  Disease 12: 186-188.Get pdf


Arcadi AC & RW Wrangham. 1999. Infanticide in chimpanzees: Review of cases and a new within-group observation from the Kanyawara study group in Kibale National Park. Primates 40: 337-351. Get pdf

Chapman CA, RW Wrangham, LJ Chapman, DK Kennard & AE  Kaplan. 1999. Fruit and flower phenology at two sites in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15:  189-211. Get pdf

Conklin-Brittain NL, ES Dierenfeld, RW Wrangham, M  Norconk & SC Silver. 1999. Chemical protein analysis: a comparison of Kjeldahl Crude Protein and Total Ninhydrin Protein from wild, tropical  vegetation. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25: 2601-2622. Get pdf

Whiten A, J Goodall, WC McGrew, T Nishida, V Reynolds, Y  Sugiyama, CEG Tutin, RW Wrangham & C Boesch. 1999. Chimpanzee cultures. Nature 399: 682-685. Get pdf


Arcadi AC, D Robert & C Boesch. 1998. Buttress drumming by wild chimpanzees: Temporal patterning, phrase integration into loud calls,  and preliminary evidence for individual distinctiveness. Primates 39: 505-518. Get pdf

Conklin-Brittain NL, RW Wrangham & KD Hunt. 1998. Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance: II. Macronutrients. International Journal of Primatology 19: 971-987. Abstract

Naughton-Treves L, A Treves,  CA Chapman & RW Wrangham. 1998. Temporal patterns of crop raiding by primates: Linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 596-606. Get pdf

O’Brien TG, MF Kinnaird, ES Dierenfeld, NL  Conklin-Brittain, RW Wrangham & SC Silver. 1998. What’s so special about figs: A pantropical mineral analysis. Nature 392: 668. Get pdf

Wrangham, RW, NL Conklin-Brittain & KD Hunt. 1998. Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance. I. Antifeedants. International Journal of Primatology 19: 949-970.


Chapman CA, LJ Chapman, R Wrangham, G Isabirye-Basuta &  K Ben-David. 1997. Spatial and temporal variability in the structure of a  tropical forest. African Journal of  Ecology 35: 287-302. Get pdf

Goldberg T & RW Wrangham. 1997. Genetic correlates of  social behaviour in chimpanzees: evidence from mitochondrial DNA. Animal Behaviour 54: 559-570. Get pdf

Mahaney WC, MW Milner, K Sanmugadas, RGV Hancock, S Aufreiter, RW Wrangham & HW Pier. 1997. Analysis of geophagy soils in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Primates 38: 159-176. Get pdf


Arcadi AC. 1996. Phrase structure of wild chimpanzee pant hoots: patterns of production and interpopulation variability. American Journal of Primatology 39: 159-178. Get pdf

Knott CD. 1996. Field collection and preservation of urine in orangutans and chimpanzees. Tropical Biodiversity 4: 95-102.

Messner EJ & RW Wrangham. 1996. In vitro testing of the biological activity of Rubia cordifolia leaves on primate Strongyloides species. Primates 37: 105-108. Get pdf

Wrangham RW & D Peterson. 1996. Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Wrangham RW. 1996. The sexual behaviour of chimpanzees and  bonobos, our closest living relatives: multiple matings and multiple meanings. In: G Benagiano (Ed.) The Evolution of the Meaning of Human Sexual Intercourse, p. 11-29.

Wrangham RW, CA Chapman, AP Clark & G  Isabirye-Basuta. 1996. Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: Implications for understanding the costs of great ape groups. In: McGrew WC, LF Marchant and T  Nishida (Eds.) Great Ape Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: pp. 45-57.


Chapman CA, RW Wrangham & LJ Chapman. 1995. Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behavioral Ecology and  Sociobiology 32: 199-209. Get pdf

Wrangham RW. 1995. Leaf-swallowing by chimpanzees, and its  relationship to tapeworm infection. American Journal of Primatology 37: 297-303. Get pdf

Wrangham, RW. 1995. Ape cultures and missing links. Symbols Spring 19952-20.


Chapman CA, RW Wrangham & LJ Chapman. 1994. Indices of  habitat-wide fruit abundance in tropical forests. Biotropica 26: 161-171. Get pdf

Chapman CA, F White & RW Wrangham. 1994. Party  composition and tree-fruit parameters in chimpanzees and bonobos. In: RW  Wrangham, WC McGrew, FBM de Waal, and PG Heltne (Eds.) Chimpanzee Cultures Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, pp.  41-58.

Clark AP & RW Wrangham. 1994. Chimpanzee arrival  pant-hoots: do they signify food or status? International  Journal of Primatology 15: 185-205. Get pdf

Conklin NL & RW Wrangham. 1994. The value of figs to a  hind-gut fermenting frugivores: a nutritional analysis. Biochemical Systematics & Ecology 22: 137-151.

Gasquet M, MA Huffman & RW Wrangham. 1994. Les plantes medicinales utilisees par les chimpanzes sauvages, In: Baerts M & J Lehmann (Eds.) Metissages en Sante Animale de Madagascar a Haiti. Namur, Presses Universitaires de Namur, pp. 291-297.

Huffman MA & RW Wrangham. 1994. Diversity of medicinal plant use in wild chimpanzees, In: Wrangham RW, WC McGrew, FBM de Waal, and PG Heltne (Eds.) Chimpanzee  Cultures. Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, pp. 1-18.

Malenky RK & RW Wrangham. 1994. A quantitative  comparison of terrestrial herbaceous food consumption by Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, and Pan troglodytes in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 32: 1-12. Get pdf

Malenky RK, RW Wrangham, CA Chapman & EO Vineberg. 1994. Measuring chimpanzee food abundance. Tropics 2: 231-244.

Malenky RK, S Kuroda, EO  Vineberg & RW Wrangham. 1994. The significance of terrestrial herbaceous  foods for bonobos, chimpanzees and gorillas. In: Wrangham RW, WC McGrew, FBM de Waal, and PG Heltne (Eds.) Chimpanzee Cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 59-75.

Wrangham RW, CA Chapman & LJ Chapman. 1994. Seed dispersal by forest chimpanzees in Uganda. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10: 355-368. Get pdf

Wrangham RW, WC McGrew, FBM de Waal & PG Heltne. 1994. Chimpanzee Cultures. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.


Chapman CA, FJ White & RW Wrangham. 1993. Defining subgroup size in fission-fusion societies. Folia Primatologica 61: 31-34.

Chapman CA & RW Wrangham. 1993. Range use of the forest chimpanzees of Kibale: implications for the understanding of chimpanzee social  organization. American Journal of  Primatology 31: 263-273. Get pdf

Clark AP. 1993. Rank differences in the production of vocalizations by wild chimpanzees as a function of social context. American Journal of Primatology 31: 159-179. Get pdf

Clark AP & RW Wrangham. 1993. Acoustic analysis of  chimpanzee pant hoots: Do chimpanzees have an acoustically distinct food arrival pant hoot? American Journal of Primatology 31:99-109. Get pdf

Kerbis Peterhans J, RW Wrangham, MD Carter & MD Hauser. 1993. A contribution to tropical rain forest taphonomy: Retrieval and documentation of chimpanzee remains from Kibale Forest, Uganda. Journal of Human Evolution 25:  485-514. Get pdf

Rodriguez E & RW Wrangham. 1993. Zoopharmacognosy: the use of medicinal plants by animals. In: Downum KR, JT Romeo & HA Stafford (Eds.) Phytochemical Potential of Tropical Plants. New York, Plenum Press, pp. 89-105.

Wrangham RW, NL Conklin, G Etot, J Obua, KD Hunt, MD  Hauser & AP Clark. 1993. The value of figs to chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 14: 243-256. Get pdf

Wrangham RW, ME Rogers & G. Isabirye-Basuta. 1993. Ape food density in the ground layer in Kibale Forest. African Journal of Ecology 31: 49-57. Get pdf


Chapman CA, LJ Chapman, RW Wrangham, KD Hunt, D Gebo &  L Gardner. 1992. Estimators of fruit abundance in tropical trees. Biotropica 24: 527-531. Get pdf

Chapman LJ,  CA Chapman & RW Wrangham. 1992. Balanites wilsoniana: Elephant dependent dispersal? Journal of Tropical Ecology 8: 275-283.

Wrangham RW. 1992. Living naturally: aspects of wild  environments relevant to captive chimpanzee management. In: J Erwin (Ed.) Chimpanzee Conservation and Public Health:  Environments for the Future. Rockville, MD: Diagon, pp. 71-81.

Wrangham RW, AP Clark & G Isabirye-Basuta. 1992. Female  social relationships and social organization of Kibale Forest chimpanzees. In: Nishida T, WC McGrew, P  Marler, M Pickford, and FBM de Waal (Eds.) Topics  in Primatology. Vol I: Human Origins. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, pp. 81-98.


Wrangham RW, NL Conklin, CA Chapman & KD Hunt. 1991. The significance of fibrous foods for Kibale Forest chimpanzees. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 334: 171-178. Get pdf


Hauser, MD & RW Wrangham. 1990. Recognition of predator and competitor calls in nonhuman primates and birds: A preliminary report. Ethology 86: 116-130.


Isabirye-Basuta G. 1989. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. In: PG Heltne, LA Marquardt (Eds.) Understanding Chimpanzees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 116-127.


Isabirye-Basuta G. 1988. Food competition among individuals in a free-ranging chimpanzee community in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Behaviour 105: 135-147. Get pdf

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